How does language evolution help to strengthen a sense of community in areas affected by poverty?

It seems that language must be the last problem for areas overwhelmed with poverty. Nevertheless, language can empower people and influence the speed of growth of their society. In the first place, language gives access to education and workplaces. National development is a vague concept, but its basic demands are education and employment. And then, language unites people in wider communities. A marginalized part of any society exists by itself primarily because people do not integrate into their broader national community. In many post-colonial countries, the language of the majority is not the language of government, which cuts off education and career prospects for people.
Language development is a complex process that depends on geopolitical conditions and on the presence of other languages spoken in the community. Languages of isolated communities are more stable, and languages of small European countries are historically more flexible to the impact of neighbors or conquerors. The point is, there is not much disagreement about languages in developed countries. Advanced societies often speak multiple languages that are common to their territory. It allows people to get the education they need and stay competitive in the workplace. The situation is very different for post-colonial countries in Africa.
There is a chasm between a language development and ingraining a foreign language as an official one. Language development happens evenly for all the community speaking this language on the national level. In poor countries, native languages do not develop but stay neglected by the government and officials. No doubt it does not help all the native-language speaking population get richer.

What is the importance of behavior in adapting animal populations to different and changing environments?

Adaptation is the only thing that can save species from dying in conditions of the changing climate. Naturally, many species are not ready to change their temperature and moist preferences right away, but evolution says species can still change over the time. Unfortunately, adaptation is far outstripped by climate change, and scientists claim some land and marine species will become extinct by 2100.
However much we wanted to help species adapt to the changing climate, we cannot do much for them. Evolutionists say, it takes species million years to fully adapt to 1 degree Celsius change. If the climate warms by 4 degrees Celsius over a century, animals would be literally trapped in their own skin.
Obviously, Arctic animals and mountain dwellers will face the challenge first. Species like the Arctic fox and the snow leopard will have a hard time hiding from predators when the snow cover is gone. There is a double threat for penguins – the ice cap is melting rapidly and an increased UV light kills algae and krill that penguins eat. The same refers to Woodland Caribou. The reindeer is gradually losing its main source of food – lichen.
Solutions for tackling climate change proposed by NGOs are too global and difficult to implement. Some biologists even say we cannot do anything to help animals adapt. Nevertheless, some animal advocacy groups have created reservations for snow leopards in Asian high mountains. Transportation of species is a good choice, though it would still save only a few of them.

What are the effects (actual and predicted) and ramifications of land-use and climate change, management, and disturbance of biodiversity?

Climate change and human resource management are damaging to ecosystems. Climate protection measures cannot keep up with the exploration of new lands where fossil fuels and prospects for agriculture lie. Therefore, we talk mostly about negative impacts of these processes. Nevertheless, they help societies push forwards their economy. Under close investigation, we can find more positive effects even if they are short-term.
Climate change is often blamed for the extinction of species. The extinction dynamics, however, is low so far. We must admit, it depends on the further speed of climate change so that predicting future tempo of extinction looks more like a guesswork. In fact, most species cannot go extinct with such a slight temperature increase (though some fish and amphibians are very sensitive to it). Instead, species expand further to the North and South Poles. Several species of phytoplankton spread to higher latitudes, and so do corals.
Rising temperatures facilitate an advanced spring awakening of plants. Fruit trees start blooming early when there is a risk of cold snaps. Sometimes the early fruits are damaged by frosts in spring. In the Arctic Circle, farmers enjoy the early farming season. In these latitudes, farming opportunities have been limited recently, but now there is much more arable land as the ice is gone.
As for the land-use, the effects are more unfortunate. The habitat loss is inevitable in tropical regions where farmers are a major threat to wild animals. Biological invasion and pollution saturate the land with phosphates, sulfates, and toxic chemicals decreasing the quality of food. Overexploitation brings degradation of the land exhausted by farm animals or the same plants growing for years at the same place.

How do human activities impact species, communities, and ecosystem function across spatial and temporal scales?

Our societies are advanced, just like our means of produ ction. We are experts at trade and exploitation of natural resources. In the time of skyrocketing industrialization, we also learned how to protect the ecosystem from ourselves, however, we have not succeeded at it yet. In terms of evolution, human activity is a selective pressure – it forces some organisms to migrate, mutate, or go extinct. Our impact is hostile to most ecosystems, and over the years, we will see whether species can adjust to the human pressure.

Among the negative impacts of human activity, we have pollution, destruction of natural habitat, waste of natural resources, and destruction of species. Industrial wastes and individual garbage contaminate resources essential for living (soil, fresh water) and cover acres in the landfills. Cutting woods for timber, we destroy the habitat of species. Timber can be wasted as a cheap fuel, and water runs away while we utilize old pipes or outdated industrial machinery. At the same time, we strengthen pathogens making them resistant to existing drugs. Some bacteria and viruses develop totally new properties because they are not as easy to destroy as other species.
Unlike animals that either move or die out, the ecosystems cannot stop functioning when only a part of it is gone. Instead, ecosystems become impaired, which means they can hardly assure protection and favorable habitat for the species that remain. Water pollution is a threat to coral reefs, and drying wetlands do not leave a chance to 90% of species. Apparently, human impact on ecosystems is most comprehensive so we wish we could slow down the damage.

How did human social complexity evolve and what are the implications of our evolutionary past for our social behavior?

Social interaction is the marker that distinguishes humans from other living beings. Certainly, there are more human-only qualities, such as an increased brain mass, an upright posture, a long lifespan etc. But only humans bind their physical and emotional well-being so tightly to what other people do and think. Most primary instincts, like nutrition, reproduction, and safety concerns, can be satisfied through socialization.
In the process of evolution, humans developed a complex social nature – something unknown to early foragers and primates. A human society evolved as people utilized their distinctive physical characteristics and built relationships within and between their families. They did it to learn foraging strategies and acquire nutritious hard-to-get food. Groups of early foragers invested a lot in learning, promoted cooperation between men and women, and built cooperative relations between each other.
A complex system of production made a direct impact on the social organization of humans. During infancy and childhood, people acquire the knowledge essential to be productive in future. Later, they make sex-based bonds that stimulate production and reproduction. Families reduce risks for themselves connecting with other nuclear families and utilizing cooperative resources. In the end, bonding, cooperation, and voluntary labor inputs lead to egalitarian social relations.
In a similar way, we can explain the transition from an agriculture-based economy to the one built on capital and skill-based labor. Egalitarian relationships free from hierarchical dictatorship turned out most suitable for present-day societies. Just like our foraging predecessors, we need to cooperate to get the best revenue and nurture our families.

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The reason why this problem is so important is that forests cover 31% of the land on the planet. Thus, the produce essential oxygen that helps us breathe and animals survive. A lot of endangered species live in forests. The more trees get cut, the worse the situation gets on our planet.

Another reason why forests are so important is that they work as a carbon sink. To be more specific, trees soak up all that carbon dioxide. Otherwise, it would go into atmosphere as well as have its great influence on the ongoing climate change processes. Statistic data show that 15% of greenhouse gas emissions occur because of deforestation. Deforestation destroys homes of many species. As a result, they cannot survive in other conditions. In order to find out more about the impact of deforestation as well as those initiatives that can help preserve our planet, do not hesitate to go to …

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